Brief of Mongolia

Official name of the country: Mongolia
Capital city: Ulaanbaatar, founded in 1639, over 1 mil inhabitants (2007) Territory: 1,566,500 sq.km

History of Mongolia

Archaeological evidence places early Stone Age human habitation in the southern Gobi between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago. By the first millennium B.C.,  

How to get Mongolian Visa? Mongolian embassies

Visa is required for all, except citizens of the following countries. Visas are available from the Mongolian embassy in
your country.

How to go Mongolia

By Air:MIAT (Mongolian Airlines), Air China, Korean Air, Turkish Air and Aeroflot (Russian Airline)

Mongolia Weather, climate and geograph

Mongolia’s climate is continental and extreme. With more than two hundred days of full sun per year it has been given the nickname of ‘the’ Country of Blue Skies’ 

Culture and lifestyle

Mongolian culture has many distinctive features. They are closely connected with the life style. From ancient times on, Mongolian have lived in the vast lands of Central Asia. 


Location: Mongolia is located in the center of the Asian continent between two large neighbors Russian Federation and China. Area: 1566500 sq. km

MONGOLIAN Health Issues and Travel insurance 

Healthcare facilities in Mongolia are poor, particularly in the countryside where facilities are run down and medicines scarce. 

Festivals and Events in MONGOLIA-2021

Mongolian Eagle festival, Mongolian Tsagaan sar-New year festival, Mongolia Naadam event, Ice festival,Horse festival 


Steppe plants from Kazakhstan grow beside Manchurian steppe flowers. More than 3000 species vascular plants, 927 lichens, 437 mosses, 875 fungi, and numerous algae have been recorded. Many other species, however... 


Rates: Free of charge: Booking, Payment: Cancellation periods: Confirmation: Confirmation: Guide: Changes to the Itinerary:Responsibility...

Brief of Mongolia

Official name of the country: Mongolia

Capital city: Ulaanbaatar, founded in 1639, over 1.5 mln inhabitants (2015)

Territory: 1,566,500 sq.km

Population: 3.4 mln  (2018)

Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia (landlocked)

Land boundaries: 8.158 km, with Russia 3,485 km and with China 4,673 km

Average altitude: 1,580 m above sea-level

Terrain: Vast semi-desert and desert plains, mountains in west and south-west, Gobi Desert in south-east

Natural resources: Mongolia has one of Asia's largest freshwater lakes - Hovsgol and river system. 75.1 percent of territory - pasture land and 8.0 percent - forest. Vegetation cover - 2260 species of vascular plants united in 596 genera and 104 families. Fauna - 127 species of mammals, 360 species of birds and 70 species of fishes.

Mongolian Climate: Sharp continental, marked by four seasons. Average summer temperature +17'C, average winter temperature -26'C, average rainfall 200-220 mm. The cold winter season lasts from November to late April, Spring May through June is cool and windy. Summer from July through to September with occasional rain is the best season for travel and outdoor activities. Autumn months are cool but sunny.

Language: Mongolian

Religion: Buddhism 85% and Christian11% Muslim 4%

Mongolian Education: Literacy rate 89.5%. Education system consists of pre-school education (kindergarten), general education (primary school 1-6, incomplete secondary school 1-8, complete secondary school 1-10), and professional education (universities). Pre-school and general education is free.

Mongolian Culture: The oral tradition of folklore includes myth, fables, legends, sayings and proverbs, song lyrics and poetry, especially the epic, the poetry of praise and good wishes. The history of written literature is now known to date from the XIII century and its first creation was "Mongolyn Nuuts Tovchoo" (Secret History of the Mongols) written in 1240 and published in 1382 main theme of which is the unification of separate Mongol tribes by Chinggis Khaan under the banner of a single state. An invariable lively response is evoked in many countries around the world by Mongolian painting and handicraft, and by performance by Mongolian circus acrobats, singers and dancers.

Political system: Mongolia is a parliamentary republic.

Head of the State: President elected for sex years. /since 2021/

Legislature: State Great Hural (Parliament), unicameral with 76 members elected for four years.

Judicial system: Mongolian judicial system consists of Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, aimag and capital city courts, somon and district courts.

State structure: Mongolia is a unitary state. Territory of Mongolia is divided administratively into aimags (23) and the capital city; aimags are subdivided into somons; somons into bags; and the capital city into districts; districts into khoroos.

National currency: Tugrug (Tg), Tg 2850= US$1, (2020.12)

Mongolian Fiscal year: January 1 - December 31

Main ports: Chingis khaan international airport in Ulaanbaatar city, Sukhbaatar (railway station on Mongolian-Russian border) and Zamyn Uud (railway station on Mongolian-Chinese border)

Mongolian Air links: Moscow, Irkutsk (Russia), Berlin, Frankfurt (Germany), Paris (France), Istanbul (Turkey), Beijing, Erlian, Huhhot, Hongkong, Shanghai, Hailar (China), Bangkok (Thailand), Seoul (Republic of Korea) and Tokyo & Osaka (Japan).

Mongolia Rail links: Ulan-Ude, Irkutsk, Moscow (Russia) and Huhhot & Beijing (China)

Sea access: Tianjin/China (1.344 km) and Nakhodka/Russia (4.037 km)

Mongolia Public holidays: December 31- January 1 - New Year; around January/February - Mongolian New Year (Tsagaan Sar), June 1 - Mother and Child day, July 11-13 - National Holiday (Naadam)

Time zone: Add 8 hours to Greenwich Mean Time

Working hours: - 09.00-13.00 and 14.00-18.00

Communication: Country code - 976, area code for Ulaanbaatar - 11

Electric current: 220 volts/50 HZ

Weight and measures: Metric System

History of Mongolia

Mongols before Genghis khan
Archaeological evidence places early Stone Age human habitation in the southern Gobi between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago. By the first millennium B.C., bronze-working peoples lived in Mongolia. With the appearance of iron weapons by the third century B.C., the inhabitants of Mongolia had begun to form tribal alliances and to threaten China. The origins of more modern inhabitants are found among the forest hunters and nomadic tribes of Inner Asia. They inhabited a great arc of land extending generally from the Korean Peninsula in the east, across the northern tier of China to present-day Kazakhstan and to the Pamir Mountains and Lake Balkhash in the west. During most of recorded history, this has been an area of constant ferment from which emerged numerous migrations and invasions to the southeast (into China), to the southwest (into Transoxiana--modern Uzbekistan, Iran, and India), and to the west (across Scythia toward Europe). By the eighth century B.C., the inhabitants of much of this region evidently were nomadic Indo-European speakers, either Scythians or their kin. Also scattered throughout the area were many other tribes that were primarily Mongol in their ethnologic characteristics.

Khamag Mongol Empire
Around the 12th centuries, there were various tribes lived in Mongolia. In 1206 after Temuujin established the first united Mongolian state, he was given the title “Chinggis Khaan”. Chinggis Khaan is legendary king who had conquered “the half of the world”. He stretched his land from Baikal Lake in north, to the Great Wall of China in the south, and from Mount Hyangan in the east, to the Altai Mountains in the west. Mongolians built many cities in 13th century and one of them is Khar Khorin which was the capital city of Mongolian empire.

The Manchu period

The Hamnigan, who established the Manchu dynasty gained power in the 12th century and conquered Mongolia in 1775 after their conquering China and Inner Mongolia. Thus Mongolia became colony of Manchu’s and lost its independence for 200 years. Buddhism was main religion in this period. Many sutras (Tibetan holly books) were translated into Mongolian and hundreds of Monasteries and temples were built.

Mongolia in 20th century

As the result of the Mongolian People’s revolution in 1921, Mongolia was released from Manchu colonization. It was dark years under the oppression of Manchu that had made Mongolia left behind world development. Socialism – the great civilization started with support of Soviet Union. Therefore the great building work had started. Secondary schools, heavy industries, power plants, telephone stations and telegraph lines have been built. A number of people increased who settled in main cities such as Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan, Erdenet and Dornod. Russia’s influence was strong through these years.

Modern Mongolia

In 1990’s, Mongolia transferred to Free Market economy and Democracy, and set the goal of building “democratic human socialism” based on a multi-party democracy. In January 1992, a new constitution was established. The first President of Mongolia was elected by public election in 1993, which was very new to the people that they actually had the opportunity to choose their own leader. The president is elected for a four year term. The Mongolian first president was P.Ochirbat. Also, Mongolia elects the Parliament on national level. The State Great Assembly (Ulsyn Ikh Khural), the parliament has 76 members, elected for a four year term in single-seat constituencies.

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How to get Mongolian visa?

Visa is required for all, except citizens of the following countries. Visas are available from the Mongolian embassy in your country. If there is no Mongolia embassy in your country, one month visas can be obtained on the spot once you arrive at the airport or railway station. There will also be a visa fee of $53US. We will supply an official confirmation letter (by email or post) for your visa application once you book a travel service with us.

  • Belarus, Brazil, Canada, Kazakhstan, Macao,USA –no need a visa for a visit not exceeding three months
  • German, Israel, Japan, Malaysia, Russia,Turkey - no need a visa for a visit not exceeding one month
  • Philippines - no need a visa for a visit not exceeding three weeks
  • Singapore ,Hong Kong- no need a visa for a visit not exceeding two weeks
  • People's Republic of China, Vietnam, Bulgaria, Thailand, Romania and Chile –who has diplomatic or official passport -no need a visa for a visit
  • Laos, Yugoslavia, Czech, Slovak, Mexico -who has diplomatic or official passport -no need a visa for a visit not exceeding three months
  • Hungary, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea - who has diplomatic or official passport -no need a visa for a visit not exceeding three month
  • India –needs Mongolian visa without visa fee
  • Cuba –no need a visa for a visit not exceeding one month Mongolian visas are issued by Mongolian Diplomatic Missions abroad or upon arrival at a special request. The Mongolian Embassies Abroad list
  • Or, for tourists wishing to stay over 30 days up to 90 days, a letter of invitation from a travel agency of Mongolia. Please let us know if you need a letter of invitation.
    Or, if you are traveling on a personal invitation of a citizen of Mongolia, an invitation approved by the Office of Immigration, Naturalization and Foreign Citizens of Mongolia, and applicant's written statement concerning his/her financial credibility to cover his/her stay in Mongolia.
    Or, for those passing Mongolia in transit, onward ticket and visa for next destination are required.
    Single entry-exit visa-USD50: for urgent service (within a working day) US$50; this kind of Visa is valid for three months from the date of issuing.
    Multiple entry-exit visa valid for six months - US$65; for urgent service (within a working day) US$130,
    Multiple entry-exit visa valid for one year - US$13 - US$130; for urgent service (within a working day) US$ 26
    Visa extension valid for one week - US$15; for urgent service (within a working day) US$30; US$2 per a day exceeding a week.

Useful links:

Ministry of Foreign affairs Trade, Mongolia: http://www.mfat.gov.mn/en.html

Mongolia Immigration Agency: http://www.immigration.gov.mn/?vlang=mn 

Consular service of Mongolia: http://www.consuls.net


Botschaft der Mongolei
Fasangartengasse 45
1130, Vienna Austria
Phone: 0043-1-535 3013, 0043-1-535 2807
Fax: 0043-1-535 3016
Email: office@embassymon.at

21-4 Kamiyama Cho Shibuya Ku
Tokyo 150-0047, Japan 
Phone: 0081-03-34-69-2088, 34-69-2162
Fax: 0081-03-34-69-2216

BELGIUM (Brussels)
Avenue Besme 18, 1190
Brussels, Belgium
Phone: +32-2-3446974
Fax: +32-2-3443215
Email: brussels.mn.embassy@telenet.be

G.AlmatyUl.Aubakerova 1/1
Phone: 007-3272-200865
Fax: 007-3272-293259
Email: monkazel@kazmail.asdc.kz

Sophia 1113, Ul.,
Frederic Jolio Curie 52
Phone: 00359-2-665929, 00359-2-659012
Fax: 00359-2-9630745
Email: mongemb@mbox.infotel.bg

NEW ZEALAND (Wellington)
86 Kings Crescent, Lower Hutt, Wellington 5010
Phone: (04) 569 2788 / (021) 464 460
Fax: (04) 566 6293
Email: mongolianconsulate.nz@alpega.com

CANADA (Ottawa)
151 Slater Street, Suite 503,
Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5H3
Phone: (613) 569-3830, 001-(613) 569-2623
Fax: 001-(613) 569-3916
Web Site: http://www.mongolembassy.org/
Email: mail@mongolembassy.org

POLAND (Warsaw)
AmbasadaMongolii 00478 Warszawa,
Polska , ul.Rejtana 15 m.16
Phone: 0048-22-8499391
Fax: 0048-22-8499391
Web Site: http://www.ambmong.net7.pl
Email: mongamb@ikp.atm.com.pl

CHINA (Beijing)
No 2, XiushuiBeijieJianGuo Men
Wai Da Jie, Beijing, China
Phone: 0086-10-6532-1810, 65321203
Fax: 0086-10-6532-5045
Email: monembbj@public3.bta.net.cn

RUSSIA (Moscow)
Moscow 121069, Ul.
Borisoglebsky, Per. 11
Phone: 007-095-290-6792, 007-095-244-7867 (Consul)
Fax: 007-095-291-4636
Email: mongolia@online.ru

CUBA (Havana)
Mongolian ECalle 66 No 505, Esguina
a 5 ta-A, Miramar Havana, Cuba
Phone: 0053-7-2042763
Fax: 0053-7-2040639
Email: monelch@ceniai.inf.cu

33-5 Hannam-Dong,
Yongsan-gu, Seoul, ROK
Phone: 0082-2-7983464 
Fax: 0082-2-7947605
Web Site: http://www.mongolembassy.com/
Email: mongol5@kornet.net

CZECH Republic (Prague)
Na Marne 5,Praha-6, 160000
Phone: 00420-2-24311198
Fax: 00420-2-24314827
Email: monemb@bohem-net.cz

SYRIA (Damascus)
P O Box. 31949, Damascus, Syria
Phone: 00963 956246000 - 0949246000
Fax: 00963 112761510
Web Site: http://www.mohoco.net
Email: consul@mohoco.net, lama@mawla.org

EGYPT (Cairo)
No.14, Str 152, Maadi
Phone: 202-359-1670 
Fax: 202-358-6012
Email: monemby@link.net

THAILAND (Bangkok)
100/3 SoiEkkamai 22,
Sukhumvit 63 Road, Klongton-Nua,
Wattana Bangkok 10110, Thailand
Phone: 0-2381-1400, 02-392-1011
Fax: 0-2392-4199
Email: mongemb@loxinfo.co.th

FRANCE (Paris)
5, Avenue Robert Schuman, 92100
Boulogne-Billancourt, Paris, France
Phone: 0033-1-46052318, 0033-1-46052812
Fax: 0033-1-46053016
Email: esyam@ambassademongolie.fr

TURKEY (Ankara)
Koza Sokak-109, G.O.P.,
Ankara 06700 Turkey
Phone: 0090-312-4467977
Fax: 0090-312-4467791
Email: mogolelc@ttnet.net.tr

GERMANY (Berlin)
Botschaft der Mongolei, Dietzgen
Str.31 13156 Berlin, Germany
Phone: +49 (30) 474 80 60
Fax: +49 (30) 474 80 616
Email: mongolbot@aol.com

7 Kensington Court,
London W8 5DL, United Kingdom
Phone: +44 (0) 20 7937 0150
Fax: +44 (0) 20 7937 1117
Web Site: http://www.embassyofmongolia.co.uk/
Email: office@embassyofmongolia.co.uk

HUNGARY (Budapest)
Mongol NagyovetsegeBogar
Utica 14/c, Budapest,
Hungary 1022
Phone: 0036-1-2124579
Fax: 0036-1-2125731
Email: mnk@mail.datanet.hu

USA (Washington D.C)
2833 M street, N.W.
Washington D.C.20007, USA
Phone: 001-202-333-7117
Fax: 001-202-298-9227
Web Site: http://www.mongolianembassy.us/
Email: esyam@mongolianembassy.us

INDIA (New Delhi)
34, Archbishop MakariousMarg,
New Delhi 110003, India
Phone: 0091-11-4631728, 4717989
Fax: 0091-11-4633240
Email: mongemb@vsnl.net

Van Phuc Diplomatic Quarter
Villa 6 Hanoi, Vietnam 
Phone: 0084-4-38453009
Fax: 0084-4-38454954
Web Site: http://http://mongembhanoi.com/
Email: hanoi@mfat.gov.mn

How to go Mongolia

By Air
Chingis Khaan International Airport, located 18 km to the southwest of Ulaanbaatar has regularly scheduled flights on MIAT (Mongolian Airlines), Air China, Korean Air, Turkish Air and Aeroflot (Russian Airline).
Here are list of airlines that serve Mongolia with direct flights from Germany, Russia, Turkey, Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and China, connecting to everywhere in the world.




Moscow, Russia

MIAT (Mongolian Airlines)
AEROFLOT (Russian Airlines)

All year

Beijing, China

MIAT (Mongolian Airlines)
Air China

All year

Seoul, (South Korea)

MIAT (Mongolian Airlines)
Korean Air,Asian Airlines

All year

Tokyo, Japan

MIAT (Mongolian Airlines)
JAL (JAPAN Airlines)

All year

Osaka, Japan

MIAT (Mongolian Airlines)
JAL (JAPAN Airlines)

Seasonal, in the summer

Berlin, Germany

MIAT (Mongolian Airlines)

All year

Frankfurt, Germany

MIAT (Mongolian Airlines)

Seasonal, in the summer

Hong Kong, China

MIAT (Mongolian Airlines)

All year

Istanbul, Turkey

Turkish Airline

All year

By Train
The legendary Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest continuous rail line in the World. The total distance by rail from Beijing to St. Petersburg, Russia is 7,925 kilometers. The Trans Mongolian runs from Russian border via Ulaanbaatar to the Chinese border. A total of 1,110 kilometers of "Trans-Mongolian Main Line" is operated inside Mongolia.
Exploring Mongolia following the rail lines of the legendary Trans-Siberian Railways is more than a simple way of transportation, it is an expedition in itself. The famous railway route is Moscow – Ulaanbaatar – Beijing. The journey by train from Moscow to Ulaanbaatar takes 5 days and from Beijing to Ulaanbaatar takes 36 hours. There are usually nine compartments in each carriage with four berths in each. Twin-share compartments are available for a supplementary price.
You may purchase train tickets online directly from Ulaanbaatar Railway website at: www.eticket.ubtz.mn/mn/. Tickets must be purchased one month in advance. 

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Mongolia Weather, climate and geography

Sharp continental, marked by four seasons. Average summer temperature +25'C, average winter temperature -15C, average rainfall 200-220 mm. The cold winter season lasts from November to late April, Spring May through June is cool and windy. Summer from July through to September with occasional rain is the best season for travel and outdoor activities. The sun shines for well over 200 days a year. Autumn months are cool but sunny.

If you planning to travel in Mongolia. It will depend on weather and climate. Mongolia is naturally have 4 season. These advices will help you to travel. The four seasons are very different, winter lasts from November to February, spring from March to mid-May, summer from mid-May till late August, and autumn is in September and October. The cold weather in north can last a month or two longer than the Gobi areas. So pack your woollens if you trotting here. Mongolia can experience four seasons in a day. With more than 260 sunny days a year, Mongolia is known as the 'Land of Blue Sky'. Mongolia experiences extreme continental clime; it is so far inland that no sea tempers its climate. As you travel in Mongolia, keep the climate in mind.



Average T





(-22)-(-35) °С


Prepare warm jackets, thick jeans and long johns, sweaters,   hats and gloves.


(-20)- (21)°С









There is much wind and dust in spring. Prepare sunglasses, jackets and mask to protect your nose.  











This season is recommended as the best season to visit! Prepare umbrella, rain coat, sunglass and sun screen are recommended. Wear summer clothes.











September is also good a month to visit Mongolia. Prepare warm clothes for October and November.  





(-10)- (-20)°С


SPRING: TIMEIn spring when unpredictable weather creates snowstorms intermixed with spells of wind and sun, keep in mind that the wind-chill factor: a 10-knot wind can make 0°C feel like -5°C. The maximum rainfalls occur in the taiga areas beside the northern border, especially Khentii and Khovsgol. Only in summer does cloud-cover the sky. Humidity is generally zero and sunshine is intense.. Only in summer does cloud-cover the sky.

SUMMER TIME:Right time to travel is in mid-May. Early May can still see snowfall, especially in the north. June weather is good and usually dry throughout the central and southern regions. The mountains and northern areas can be cold. July is the time to see the Naadam Festival. This is also the peak tourist season. It's a decent time to look for travel partners and get out of the city. Gobi temperatures this month can rise up to excruciating 40°C.

AUTUMN: In the month of August there will be heavy rainfall in the northern and central areas. This weather fills up rivers and brings the lush green grass creating a picturesque view, but it can also swamp the roads with mud and attract mosquitoes. This is one of the best times to travel in Mongolia. September is another okay month. The cool weather brings respite to the Gobi and the varying colours in the forests in the north are beautiful. October is again cool and sees the occasional or rare snow bustle up north but is still fine for travel, especially in the Gobi desert. Weather patterns at this time are unpredictable. You never know one moment you're walking in a T-shirt, the next you need an overcoat and boots, and then you are back to T-shirts. The cold season is between November and February. Mongolians, especially nomads, contemplate March and April as the worst months. After the long winter, livestock will already be thin and a lack of rain brings about their death, causing financial and psychological adversity. If the spring is a harsh weather, staying with a nomad family at this time is not recommended.

IN THE ULAANBAATAR: Ulaanbaatar is considered the coldest capital city in the world. Temperatures can drastically start to drop below 0°C in late October, and cold biting temperature of to -30°C in January and February and remain below freezing till April. July to September is pleasant, but it can still turn cold. Mongolia is a holiday spot to plan with your friends and family.

Natural Zones Of Mongolia 

1. High Mountain Zone. All Mongolia is
mountain, the country averaging 1.5 kilometers above the sea level. In Mongolian terms, 5% is at such high altitude as to endure extreme condition the High Mountain Zone winds, extreme cold, and very short growing season.

The Zone is above the tree line, characterized by tundra, alpine- sedge meadows, upland swamps and lichen- covered screes and boulders. Plants include shrubby Ground Birch; occasion Mountain Pine, beautiful white Gentian and Mountain Saxifrage. Typical mammals are “Argali”, Ibex, Snow leopard, Ermine, Snow Marten and Mountain Hare, birds include White Ptarmigan, Altai Snow cock, Eurasian Dottrel, Rock Pigeon and Red-Billed Chough.

2. Taiga forest zone. Northern Mongolia includes the southern rim of Siberia 's vast taiga forest, the largest forest on the planet Earth. The taiga is boreal coniferous forest, mainly Siberian Larch and in higher areas Siberian Pine. Other confers such as Siberian Spruce feature. The bark and forest floor is rich in moss and lichens. In Mongolia are relatively undisturbed.


3. Mountain forest steppe. To the south, about 25% of Mongolia is a mix of forest and grassland, a transition zone between taiga forest and steppe, with northern slopes clothed in trees and southern slopes carpets of wild ‘ flower of open grassland'. This attractive landscape has a high biological diversity, home to Roe Deer, Elk, Wolf, Red Fox, and Tolai Hare, Siberian marmot.


4. Steppe Zone. Further south, the Steppe Zone is a ‘sea grass' covering 20% of Mongolia , crucial for the livestock of the semi-nomadic herder families. These permanent pastures, undisturbed by ploughing or artificial chemical are rich carpets of sweet smelling herbs, flower and grasses. The steppe Zone is crucial for the semi-nomadic life with livestock such as horses, goats, cattle, yaks and camels.


5. Desert Steppe Zone. South again the lush green grasslands of the steppe give away to a transition, the Desert Steppe Zone on the north rim of the Gobi Desert . The transition zone covers 20% of Mongolia , a dry region of parched grasslands and salt pans, strong winds and dust storm. It has grasses and shrubs very different from those of the Steppe Zone many are unique to Central Asia . Desert Steppe Zone, Desert to South. In the skies, are Houbara Bustard, Cinerous Vulture and huge Lammergeyer. Grazing animals include herds of Wild Horse, Wild ass, Saiga Antelope and Black-Tailed Gazelle.


6. Gobi Desert Zone: To the south, lies the vast Gobi, a massive desert straddling the border of Mongolia and the Inner Mongolia region of China. One of the world's great deserts, much of the Gobi is a daunting place of bare Rocky Mountains , sand dunes, huge desert flats, relieved by well-watered oases. The climate is harsh, from 40 degree centigrade in summer to -40degree centigrade in winter. 
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Culture and lifestyle

Mongolian culture has many distinctive features. They are closely connected with the life style. From ancient times on, Mongolian have lived in the vast lands of Central Asia. Raising livestock and nomadic living patterns have found reflection in everyday thinking and the culture.

One of the unique features of nomadic culture is that Mongolian people live in full harmony with Mother Nature. In comparison with settled peoples, the nomadic herders, face nature directly on a day in, day out basis. Through this, the herders are involved in a multifaceted relationship with nature. This is why Mother Nature is the theme of many epics, blessings, and well wishes. There are many traditions, customs, and teachings regarding the protection and care of Mother Nature. Tearing up flowers and grass, allowing filth into water systems, digging up and destroying land, killing of animals and destruction of forests are considered sins and are thus strictly prohibited even today.
Livestock Herding, the main source of the nomadic lifestyle, is another important trait of Mongolian culture. Mongolians have a history of raising and caring for their livestock. Horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and camels are praised as the "five treasures". Horses are considered the "emeralds" and are highly respected among the people. Thousands of teachings, sayings, proverbs, tales, epics, songs, and dances have been created in praise of the "five treasures'.

Shamanism is closely related to Mongolian nomadic culture. The tribes in Mongolia followed shamanism from the times of the Great Huns until the formation of the Uighur Empire. According to the "Secret History of the Mongols", and other historic sources, shamanism was the state religion until the introduction of Buddhism. Shamanism reflects the Mongolian feeling towards Mother Nature. For these reason shamans performed rituals of worshipping the master of mountains, water, sky and land. Some of these traditions, mixed with the Mongolian lifestyle, oral literature, folklore and symbolism, are important components of Mongolian nomadic culture.

Buddhism, introduced in Mongolian in the 16th century, played an enormous role in the development of Mongolian culture. The Mongolians' perceptions, psychology, traditions, thinking, and world outlook were enriched by the Buddhist philosophy and worldview.

An outstanding historical and cultural relic is the Mongol-un nigucha tobichiyan ( The Secret History of the Mongols). This work by an anonymous author dates to about 1240. The Secret History is a fusion of tense historical narration, folklore and old poetry. It is an honest, sincere account depicting Chinghis Khaan without embellishment or laudation. The book is not an apology of annexation campaigns or the conquerors' ambitious claims. All people are described as worthy and only the rulers are depicted as cunning, sly men, evoking feelings of disgust in the simple hearted Mongols.


Mongolian population is divided into some ethnic groups. But, they have one thing common: they are nomads, or nomads at heart, even if they are urbanized. About half of 2.9mln Mongolians live in Gers, and over 500.000 herdsmen look after 50 million livestock. They are truly nomadic, moving their gers and animals several times a year, constantly searching for better feed, water and weather. The life of a nomad, and therefore Mongolia, is inextricably linked to the nature and animals. Nomads learn to ride as soon as they can walk, they spend half their time looking for stray animals (there are almost no fences in Mongolia), carrying a type of lasso pole called uurga.

Nomadic Mongolia
Mongolia, which is one of the oldest civilizations on earth, continues to draw a keen interest of people of diverse nationalities to explore its unique historical past, the peculiar features of its social and economic development, its unusual beauty and almost untouched nature.

Mongolian culture has many distinctive features closely connected with the Nomadic life style. Starting from ancient times, Mongolians have been living in the vast lands of Central Asia raising livestock and living a nomadic way of life. These patterns are still reflected in everyday thinking and the culture.

One of the unique features of nomadic culture is that Mongolian people live in full harmony with Mother Nature. In comparison with settled peoples, the nomadic herders face nature directly on a day in, day out basis. Through this, the herders are involved in multifaced relationship with nature. This is why Mother Nature is the theme of many epics, blessings, and well-wishes. There are many traditions, customs, and teachings regarding the protection and care of Mother Nature. In fact disrupting nature like digging up and destroying land, putting pollutants into the water ways, killing animals and destroying forests are considered sins and are thus strictly prohibited even today.

Shamanism is closely related to Mongolian nomadic culture. The tribes in Mongolia followed shamanism from the times of the Great Huns until the formation of the Uighur Empire. Shamanism reflects the feeling Mongolians have towards Mother Nature. For this reason shamans performed rituals of worshipping the master of mountains, water, Sky and land. Some of these traditions, mixed with the Mongolian lifestyle, oral literature, folklore and symbolism, are important components of Mongolian nomadic culture today.

Buddhism, which was introduced to Mongolia in the 16th century, has also played an enormous role in the development of Mongolian culture. The Mongolians perceptions, psychology, traditions, thinking, and world outlook were enriched by the Buddhist philosophy and world view.

The Mongolian Ger
With a history of over a thousand years, this portable dwelling made of wood lashed together with leather thongs and covered with felt is the home of the Mongolian nomads. Easy to erect and dismantle, the ger, its furnishings, and the stove inside can be carried by just three camels, or wagons pulled by yaks.

The average ger is small but spacious enough to provide adequate living space for a family, is wind resistant, and has good ventilation. Gers are constructed of a latticed wood structure covered with layers of felt and canvas. A lattice frame of narrow birch and willow laths is held together by leather strips. The sections are about 2 meters long and are bound together to form a large circular structure. This collapsible lattice is called khana. The average ger uses four to eight khana, with six being the most popular size. The door-frame is a separate unit, as is the ceiling formed from an umbrella-like frame-work of slender poles called uni, which are lashed to the khana on one end and slotted into the tonoo, a circular frame, at the top. Traditionally, the door was a felt flap attached to the door-frame, but most nomads now use a carved or painted wooden door. In the center of the tonoo is a small hole which allows smoke to escape and fresh air and light to enter. Each ger is heated by a small metal stove fueled with dried dung or wood.

The entrance of the ger always faces south. Once the wooden framework is lashed together, it is covered with layers of felt and canvas. The felt helps the ger retain heat and the canvas over it sheds rain. Ropes made of hair and wool hold the thick layer of felt in place. During the summer, one layer of felt is used, but during the winter, two or three layers are necessary. Travelers to Mongolia will have the opportunity to sleep in traditional gers while staying with nomadic families or at ger camps. The Mongolian ger has customs attached to it that are unique; please refer to the guide following this section to learn more about the Do’s and Don’ts inside a ger.   

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When is the best time to come to Mongolia? 
June to September is the best season, with the peak season in July for the Naadam Festival and other many outdoor activities. July and August are also the mild and wettest months of the year, but be assured; climate is such that you will still have many sunny days at this time.  If you are adventure maker wants to challenge your self with Mongolian harsh climate welcome to travel in Mongolia in cold and dry seasons.  

For all types of visa you will need following documents:
1.    Your passport with at least one blank page an should be valid for minimum 6 months 
2.    Two copies of recent passport size photo
3.    Visa fee
To apply for tourist visa for a period of no longer than one month a letter of invitation from hosting organization is required. Please make sure visa requirements of gateway countries to Mongolia, i.e., China, Russia, Korea or Japan. 
Transit visas for 7 days is possible to obtain at the entry point of Chinggis Khaan international Airport, Zamii-uud and Sukhbaatar railway ports. 

Every one coming to Mongolia must complete a custom declaration, which should be retained until departure. This allows the free import and re-export of article intended for personal use for duration of stay. It prohibited to import and export:

  • Guns, weapons, ammunitions without special permission.
  • Explosive items
  • Radioactive substance
  • Pornographic publications
  • Opium, hashish, and other narcotics
  • Publications, records, films, drawings opposing Mongolia
  • Research materials, paleontological  and archeological findings, collection of various plants and their seeds, birds, wild and domestic animals, wool, raw skins and hides, and furs without permissions of appropriate  Mongolian authorities.

Mongolia allows to the following items to be brought in duty free.

  • One litter of spirits
  • Two litters of wine
  • Three litters of beer
  • 200 cigarettes
  • 250 grams of tobacco

Visitors taking antiques and fossils out of the country must have official documentation to do so. Some shops will provide the necessary documents upon purchase. Alternatively, permission can be obtained from the Ministry of Education and Science, Culture in Ulaanbaatar.

How to get Mongolia?
International air flights
Only international airport Chinggis Khaan is receives flights from Moscow, Beijing, Seoul, Tokio and Berlin. Beside MIAT Mongolian airline, Aeroflot- Russian airline, Korean Air- Korean airlines, Air China- CAAC have scheduled flights to/from Mongolia. 
MIAT Mongolian Airlines - http://www.miat.com 
Aeroflot - http://www.aeroflot.ru/eng/ 
Air China - http://www.airchina.com.cn 
Korean Air - http://www.koreanair.com 

Trans Siberian railway  
Another way to enter and leave Mongolian is Trans Siberian railway. Mongolian and Trans Siberian railway connects Europe and Asia through Mongolia. Cross- traveling Mongolian-Russian, Mongolian Chinese border, central Asian Gobi desert, Siberian Forest Mountains and steppe with Trans Siberian railway itself exciting experience. 
Do I need travel insurance?
Although we do not require travel insurance, it is recommended to out client to purchase a standard travel insurance service from your local company. This will cover you for unexpected events that may badly influence your vocation.  

What do I need to take in my pack?
If you need some thing that not expected to buy from Mongolia during the trip please make sure that purchase from your place.  The following is a rough guide of the things that will need pack for your trip to Mongolia. Although this may not suit everyone’s needs it can be acceptable to personal requirements or the type of trip that you are planning to take.

How is the communication? How can I contact with my family? 
You can make an international call from almost every hotel in the capital and the main cities. Also, Mongolia is widely accessed with mobile and internet operators throughout the country, so communicating is never a problem. You can also rent a mobile phone or satellite phones from the operators.

Can you tell me bit an about accommodation?
If you are staying in Ulaanbaatar, you will be staying in a hotel with 3-5 stars and will stay in tourist Ger camp (Mongolian traditional dwelling) or tented camps near attractions.

In Ulaanbaatar or some local towns we assure that you stay in the best available hotel. Hotels in Ulaanbaatar graded as 3 and 4 stars are generally comfortable and offer in-room international standard bathroom facilities, TV with access to international channels, telephones with IDD, room service etc.

Tourist GER camp 
Most common accommodation outside cities on our expeditions is so-called ger camps. Made of latticed wood structure covered with felt layers and durable canvas, this dome shaped unique accommodation is heated by wood stove placed in the center and furnished with beautifully decorated wood-framed beds. Shower and toilet facilities are normally found in a separate building outside the ger. Staying in ger is a memorable experience of Mongolian culture. Most visitors find their stays at ger camps to be among their most memorable experiences in Mongolia.

Tented camping
On many of our adventurous journeys to more remote areas we use tented camps. tents of highest qualities, mattresses, chairs, dining tables are provided. When necessary we also provide portal shower and toilet facilities for the comfort of our guests. Our expedition staff set up camps and prepares meals and takes care of all your needs. Tented camps allow you to interact more with the nature and visit the remotest areas of the country.

How are the domestic flights?
We sometimes use domestic flights to aimag centers and tourist camps, in surrounding area of which where many of our discovery tours and adventure tours are arranged. Major domestic flight destinations include Dalanzadgad in South Gobi, Murun town in Huvsgul, Khovd town in the western Altai region and Choibalsan town in Dornod aimag. Helicopters are also chartered for special tours to the remotest areas where we can not fly an airplane or drive by jeeps. The personal luggage allowance on domestic flights is 15kg; the cost per kilo of baggage is 3400-4100Tg depending on distance. 

What is the look Mongolia vehicles?
Depending on the nature of tours and type of destination we use different types of vehicles; for jeep overland expeditions we use Japanese Toyota Landcruiser jeeps, which is the best available for its type. In some remote areas where we have to fly we arrange local vehicles most of them happen to be Russian made UAZ four wheel drives either jeep or minivan. For sightseeing in Ulaanbaatar we use deluxe coaches and minibuses or small cars.

How long will the drive take per day? 
When you travel around the vast steppes in Mongolia, our trip will take about 6 to 10 hours per day and it will cover from 100 up to 360 kilometers / 62-225 miles

How is the meal? 
Both traditional Mongolian and European cuisine is available. Look Mongolia provides the selection of best available local restaurants on cities and popular destinations. During excursions to remote areas we provide services of professional chefs who normally travel with the group. Arrangements can be made for vegetarians and those with special dietary needs.

Gifts and souvenirs 
Mongolia is the best place for cashmere products. As one of the leading countries in the production of cashmere, it offers the cheapest prices for the highest quality and design. Lately cashmere production is developing rapidly and being very fashionable. As a gift for the one you care, you can buy beautifully ornamented art crafts which usually use nomadic life.

How is the Safety and security? 
Generally, Mongolia is a safe destination for travelers. However, incidences of pick pocketing and bag slashing have been on the rise in recent years, so always keep your personal belongings in a safe place (money belts are highly recommended), especially in crowded areas or in places where your attention is diverted, such as internet cafes . Notorious places for theft are the Black Market, the railway station and crowded bus stops. Violent crime is uncommon, but still caution is required at night, and dark or deserted alleys and streets, in particular, should be avoided. Most of the dogs in rural area could be aggressive. Please note that they are guardians of the herd not pet. 

Can you tell me about currency exchange? 
The monetary unit in Mongolia is TUGRUG, which is equal to 100 mungu. At the present, 20,000, 10,000, 5,000, 1,000, 500, 100, 50, 20, and 10 tugrug notes are in circulation. Commercial banks in Ulaanbaatar and province centers are the official organizations authorized to exchange foreign currency. They have network of branches in Ulaanbaatar and exchange bureaus at main hotels. ATM machine is available.  US Dollar, Euro and Japanese Yen are common currencies in Mongolia.  As  DEC 2020 currency rate is:
1 USD =2850 MNT
1 Euro= 3200 MNT

Is Traveler cheques are acceptable in Mongolia?
Few banks accept Travelers Cheque. But Credit cards and cash payment are . You can also withdraw cash from any ATM in all major towns. Visa, MasterCard, American Express and JCB card are acceptable. It is almost impossible to use your credit cards in the countryside. 

What is the Electric Current?
The standard voltage in Mongolia is 220Volts/50Hz. Most sockets require a European style plug or adaptor.

Do you arrange private tours?
We offer private tours to individuals, families, and groups. Our private tours include a wide range of activities from cultural explorations, archeology to exhilarating outdoor adventures (Altai Mountain Trekking, Horse and Camel riding, Gobi desert expeditions, and much more).

What are the entertainments?
National folklore performances, classical art, ballet and other cultural shows are available in Ulaanbaatar. At tourist camps in the countryside private concerts of traditional dancing and singing performances can be arranged. 

Why should I travel with Shine Zuuch Travel? 
Shine Zuuch Travel is a one of the most responsible, experienced and professional tour operation group in Mongolia which is diversified its services. return to top

Mongolian Health Issues and Travel insurance

Healthcare facilities in Mongolia are poor, particularly in the countryside where facilities are run down and medicines scarce. Organising an evacuation to Ulaanbaatar or from Ulaanbaatar to another country can be difficult and expensive. We strongly advise you to obtain adequate insurance before you travel.

Intrepid takes the health and safety of its travellers seriously, and takes every measure to ensure that trips are safe, fun and enjoyable for everyone. We recommend that all travellers check with their government or national travel advisory organisation for the latest information before departure:
From Australia? Go to: http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/
From New Zealand? Go to: http://www.safetravel.govt.nz/
From Canada? Go to: http://www.voyage.gc.ca/
From US? Go to: http://travel.state.gov/
From UK? Go to: http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/
The World Health Organisation
also provides useful health information: 
Go to: http://www.who.int/en/

We are aware of the impact that the coronavirus is having on our daily lives including financially as well as world travel and holiday plans. We’re working hard on making sure we look after our guests as well as our team.
Follow the link below to learn more about the Mongolian Covid-19

SOS medical in Ulaanbaatar only basic health care is available. You should bring with you basic supplies of over-the-counter medicines you use regularly as well as any regular prescription drugs you need.

Mongolia has occasional outbreaks of hand, foot & mouth disease, a viral infection which most commonly affects children and infants, as well as other infectious diseases.

During these outbreaks affected areas may be quarantined and you may not be able to travel to them. Conversely if you are in an affected area, you may not be allowed to leave. During the summer hunting season there may be isolated cases of bubonic plague. These are usually confined to the marmot hunters who pick up the disease from fleas when skinning their prey but visitors should be aware of the risk.

In the 2010 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, the UNAIDS/WHO Working Group estimated that fewer than 500 adults aged 15 or over in Mongolia (around 0.1% of the adult population) were living with HIV. This compares with 0.2% of adults in the UK.
You should seek medical advice before travelling to Mongolia, particularly if you have a condition which might be exacerbated by altitude or atmospheric pollution.

You should ensure that all your vaccinations are up-to-date. For further information on vaccination requirements, health outbreaks and general disease protection and prevention visit the websites of the National Travel Heath Network & Centre (NaTHNaC).

HEALTH:Are there any health requirements? Do I need immunizations to enter Mongolia?

Travelers are advised to check with their doctors before visiting Mongolia. A Health Declaration form must completed upon arrival. No immunizations are requigreen for short-term travelers, unless you are coming from or through a yellow fever infected area. You should also bring any special health remedies or medications you require, as well as over-the-counter items.

For travelling into countryside, immune globulin is also recommended to combat hepatitis A, as is typhoid immunization.

The health quarantine service has the right to prevent any foreigner suffering from AIDS, venereal disease, leprosy, mental illness, or active tuberculosis from entering Mongolia.

Health- Any food consideration?
Despite what you might hear about food supplies in Mongolia, it's now very simple to have a balanced diet, even if you're a vegetarian. If you're intending to eat out in Ulaanbaatar, there are a large number of restaurants serving quality, Chinese, Indian, Korean, Japanese, Italian, English, French, Russian, Latin American and of course Mongolian cuisines. There are also a lot of supermarkets and markets selling both Mongolian and imported goods from China, Russia, East Asia and Europe. The domestic meat and dairy products are good value and considerably more tasty than meat you may find at home. The one used by most of the expatriates living in the country is the Mercury Market situated just a couple of hundred meters west of the Circus.In the countryside things are a bit different. Although some of the larger Aimag(Province) centres will have supplies suitable for foreigners, the Sums will have little more than biscuits and chocolate. As you move out of the city, you also lose the quality in restaurant food. In most cases only Mongolian-style food will be available. The extreme climate here means that many Mongolians, especially those living in the countryside have to eat a lot of protein and fat to keep themselves warm and healthy. Visiting herders in the countryside will inevitably mean that you will be offered a number of meat and dairy products. Even if some of them look unappetizing, you will please your host greatly if only you try a little.

You will never travel without adequate travel insurance. Comprehensive travel insurance is an essential part of your travel package. We recommend that you obtain comprehensive travel and health insurance before travelling to Mongolia Vaccination There are no specific vaccinations that are legally required for entry to Mongolia. However we recommended the following vaccinations for this holiday. Hepatitis and Rabies? Check the website of a reputable travel agency or the foreign office website more details. And please consult your doctor or travel clinic for the latest up to date advice. return to top

Flora Fauna

Mongolia’s diverse and distinctive vegetation includes an important part of Asia’s plant life. Species representative of Siberia’s coniferous taiga forest, Central Asia’s steppe and desert, and the Altai and Sayan mountains all occur here. Steppe plants from Kazakhstan grow beside Manchurian steppe flowers. More than 3000 species vascular plants, 927 lichens, 437 mosses, 875 fungi, and numerous algae have been recorded. Many other species, however, remain to be classified. Mongolia’s flora includes almost 150 endemic plants and nearly 100 relict species. Over 100 plant species are listed in the Mongolian Red Book as rare or endangered.

Like its vegetation, Mongolia’s fauna represents a mixture of species from the northern taiga of Siberia, the steppe, and the deserts of Central Asia. Fauna includes 136 species of mammals, 436 birds, 8 amphibians, 22 reptiles, 75 fish, and numerous invertebrates.

Species is endemic to Central Asia are found primarily in the Gobi and desert steppe including the Mongolian subspecies of the saiga antelope Saiga tatarica mongolica, four species of jerboa (long-eared jerboa Euchoreutus naso, Kozlov’s pygmy jerboa Salpingotus kozlovi, Mongolian jerboa Stylodipus andewsi, Gobi jerboa Allactaga bullata) and a vole (Brandt’s vole Lasiopodomys brandti) that are endemic to Central Asia. The birds include the Altai snowcock. Tetraogallus altaica and Kozlov’s accentor Prunella kozlove. Reptiles endemic to Central Asia include eight species. Endemic fish include the Altai Osman Oreoleucicus potanini and the Mongolian grayling Thymallus brevirostris. Numerous globally threatened and endangered species occur in Mongolia .

Mongolian birds and insects
57 different species of birds belonging to 200 genera, 60 families f 19 orders registered. 81 species birds permanently live during the four seasons, while others migrate.

Insects in Mongolia
Entomological research started in 1960's in the Mongolia and for the past 40 years, Russian Polish and other countries scientists have worked on Mongolia. Results of this research, over 12500 species of insects have been recorded in Mongolia, and over 2000 species have been initial discoveries in the world.

Fish of Mongolia
Since in 1954 fish has been exploited in Mongolia. There are 75 species of 43 types, 13 families, 8 groups, 2 classes fishes live in rivers and lakes of Mongolia. There are 33 species of fish for fishing tour and sport fishing in our rivers and lakes. There are also represented 875 funguses; 300species of Microorganisms have been registered in Mongolia. return to top

Terms and Conditions

Rates:This tariff is applicable from 1 January 2021 to 31 December 2021. All rates are per person in U.S. dollars or in Euros. Significant changes in the value of the Dollar or Euro in relation to various currencies or drastic increase in cost of land / air services may necessitate increase in the tour cost. However, once the tour is paid in full, you are guaranteed against future price increases, provided no charge is made by the passenger (s) to the original booking.

Free of charge:
For every 15 paying clients in a group, one extra person can be included in the tour free of charge.

Booking:Group tours should be booked ONE months in advance and the rooming list should be sent 15 days before arrival. For individuals, booking should be made 10 days in advance. Also, we provide services to make reservations in hotels and for train/air tickets.

Payment:Deposit 30% of the total tour cost must be wired to our bank account upon the tour confirmation and remaining balance must be wired to our bank account before arrival 2 WEEKS in advance. Payment must be made on time; otherwise, reservation will be canceled.

Cancellation periods:
20% cancellation charge for all tours cancelled 8-10 business days before arrival.
30% cancellation charge for all tours cancelled 5-7 business days before arrival
40% cancellation charge for all tours cancelled 2-4 business days before arrival.
50% cancellation charge for all tours cancelled 1 business day before arrival.
100% cancellation charge for all tours cancelled the day of arrival.

Note: the payment is usually done by wire transfer; thus, there is fee of the wire transfer which has to be paid at the time of sending.  Your bank may not require fee for wire transfer, but there is correspondent bank charges between banks

Confirmation:All bookings and other inquires will be responded to within 48 hours.

Transportation:All clients will be met at the airport on arrival and taken to the airport for departure. We provide vehicles and a driver according to the size of group (i.e. tour bus, van or jeep).

Guide:All group tour arrangements ( groups of two or more) include the exclusive service of English (or Russian, Japanese, Spanish and German) speaking guide. Guides for other languages are available upon request.

Changes to the Itinerary:We have made attempts to make these programs as accurate as possible. However, in circumstances beyond our control, changes may occur. We therefore reserve the right to change itinerary, carriers and substitute hotels where necessary.

Responsibility: Shine Zuuch Travel for the owners and/or contractors, travelers, providing  the services and means of transportation used in the tours. All tickets and vouchers issued are subject to the terms and conditions under which such services and means of transportation are offered and provided.

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Festivals and Events in MONGOLIA-2022




Ice Festival

2-3 March/ annually

Khuvsgul Lake National Park. Relax at the ice-bar amongst the ice sculptures to watch sumo wrestling, horse-sledge races, ice skating, tug of war, and rally driving all on the frozen Lake Khuvsgul ! 

Thousand Camel Festival

6-7 March/annually

For the preservation of the Bactrian Camel. Get up close with these amazing creatures. Camel races, camel polo, handling competitions and traditional games.

Tsagaan Tsar

Feb 09th 2022

The festival of the lunar New Year, Tsagaan Sar or ‘White Month’ marks the passing of winter and arrival of spring. The exact date is dependent upon the Mongolian lunar calendar.

Naadam Festival

10th - 13th July annually

Naadam, which means "Games", is the most important holiday of the year and celebrated in every town and village across the country. It features the three manly sports: wrestling, archery and horse racing. 

Eagle Festival

first weekend of October/ annually

Up to 400 Eagle hunters gather on horse back with their prize birds to compete in contests of speed, agility and courage and traditional Kazakh games

Nomads Day Festival

17th-18th September

An insight into the Nomadic lifestyle with horse demonstrations and participation encouraged! Followed by a mini Naadam festival.

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Date: 1st -3rd of March, every year

Venue: Huvsgul Lake National Park, Huvsgul aimag


1st day: 

  • Opening Ceremony  
  • Shaman Rituals
  • Skate competition
  • Horse and sledge races
  • Traditional game “Ice Shooting”
  • Marching of horses with sledges
  • Sledge horse race for
  • 1st round of skating marathon for 100km
  • Car driving competition on ice
  • Available horse riding & sledge dog
  • Visit a nomad and reindeer families
  • Shopping in ice gers
  • Traditional art concert of local artists

2nd day: 

  • 2nd round of skating marathon for 100 km
  • Reindeer race
  • Catching reindeer with lasso competition
  • Short distance skating race (2 кm)
  • Wrestling on ice
  • Tug-of-war on ice
  • Prize ceremony
  • Closing ceremony
  • Fire works


Date: 6th - 7th of March, Every year

Venue: Bulgan soum, Umnugobi (South Gobi) aimag

Ticket price: 50 USD.dollar

Travel to the Gobi Desert to attend the "Thousand Camels Festival," organized by a local non-governmental organization working to protect and preserve the 2 humped Bactrian camel population, which has been steadily declining over the past thirteen years. This magnificent festival allows travelers a rare opportunity to interact with and learn first-hand about these amazing animals and the camel herders' nomadic lifestyle. Highlights of the festival include camel races, camel polo, nice couple competitions and other amazing competitions.  

Itinerary: UB-Mandalgobi-Dalanzadgad-Bulgan soum (from UB to Dalanzadgad 560km of paved road, approximately 7hours of drive )

1st Day, 6th of March

  • 09:00-13:00 Pre championship of Camel Polo (competitions between local teams should be finished day before)
  • 13:00-14:00 Lunch
  • 14:00 Opening ceremony of the Camel Festival. Camels Parade. Tourists can attend the parade. Contest of the best couple on camelback
  • 15:00 Start of the Mongolian Traditional Game- ice shooting competition
  • 17:00 Championship of Camel Polo
  • “Camel- My friend” Painting Exhibition organized by “Altai Snow cock” nature protecting club of Bulgan soum’s high school students and their activities
  • Explore  the exhibition of local handcrafts, camel milk, healing effects of camel dairy products
  • 18:00 Enjoy the cultural concert of the “Altai Snow cock” nature protecting club


2nd Day, 7th of March

  • 09:00 – Start of Camel Race. Making bets on chosen camels. Organizing the bets “Bulgan Bulagyn Trainer’s Association”
  • 10:30 Enjoy Camel Racing
  • 12:00 2 year-old young camels’ race with the bets
  • 13:00- 14:00 Lunch break
  • 14:00 “Camel Relay” competition testing camel herders’ agility
  • 17:00 Awarding and closing ceremonies


3rd Day, 8th of March (Leisure day, free day)

Back itinerary: Bulgan soum- Khavtsgait Rock Petro glyphs- Dalanzadgad

  • 08:00 Watch the “Khavtsgait Petro glyphs”, the remnant of the ancient people, which locate in Baruun Saikhan Mountain, the one of the Gobi Gurvan Saikhan Mountains where in 28 km from Bulgan soum
  • 12:30 Lunch in Dalanzadgad
  • 13:30 Visit “Youth Cultural and Information Center” in Dalanzadgad and will be informed with the information of  Mongolian Gobi paleontology and nature, animals, flora and fauna
  • 15:00 Back to Ulaanbaatar from Dalanzadgad

Accommodation: Specially prepared Ger-hotels of Bulagan soum’s local people (in winter time tourist camps don’t work). In Ger-hotels work trained servers by tourist services and food services.

Communication services: Bulgan soum locates in 100 km from Dalanzadgad and there are available communication operators such as Mobicom, G-mobile, Skytel, Unitel.

Fee: 50 USD for mandate and allowed to take photos from car during the camel race in certain distance. Wear the mandate during the whole festival. Mandates will be given before one month.

Weather: Annual average temperatures at nights -10-15OC, at days -3-8 OC

 Other: Various options of car services such as Land Cruiser 80, Land Cruiser 100, UAZ furgon etc.


Kazakh people are one of the ethnic groups of Mongolia with Muslim religion. Kazakh’s have tradition hunt with eagle for more than 2000 years. They mostly hunt rabbit, fox and wildcat. There are mainly three competitions held among Kazakhs including grab leather, grab bag and horse racing and more. Organized in Jargalant, Ulaanbaatar city.


Ice ankle bone shooting game is one the traditional games played in winter season. From distance of 50 to 60m, attendance will release the ankle bone targeting the small barrels. The event will be organized on frozen Tuul river of Capital City Ulaanbaatar.

WINTER FESTIVAL: Nauriz celebration (March)

Nauriz is the celebration of the ethnic group Kazakh people. The event is held in capital city Ulaanbaatar and has many programs including Kazakh traditional clothes parade, traditional food and other contests.


Mongolian National Costume is a bright example of culture that introduces foreign guests and tourists to the marvels of national costumes and folk performances in the country. The festival will take place at “Guru” tourist camp in the beautiful Gorkhi Terelj National Park located 65 km from Ulaanbaatar to the east. During the festival you will experience customs of various Mongolian minorities as well as view dances including Tsam and hear national music plus huumii, the throat singing.


Date: 5th-8th of July, Every year

Venue: "Dalai Tour" tourist camp, Khatgal village, Huvsgul aimag


1st Day:

  • Welcoming tourists from UB-Murun at airport
  • Drive to “Dalai Tour” tourist camp
  • Dinner

2nd Day:

  • 08:00 Breakfast
  • 10:00 Opening art ceremony of the Tsaatan (reindeer herder) Festival (At “Dalai tour” tourist camp, “Khuvsgul- Mongolian Northern Honored Part” fair of Fine Arts and handcrafts demonstrating features of Khuvsgul aimag’s geography, reindeer’s people’ lifestyle and reindeers)
  • 11:00 Visit reindeer herder’s camp and explore their lifestyle, Reindeers racing, Horse, reindeer riding and oxcart trip
  • 13:00 Lunch
  • 15:30 Mini Naadam- National Wrestling (32 wrestlers)
  • 16:00 Reindeer polo (participating tourists)
  • 17:30 Leisure travel on the shore of Khuvsgul Lake
  • 19:00 Dinner
  • 21:00 Fireworks, Shaman ritual and evening show

3rd Day:

  • 05:00 Watch morning sunrise on the shore of Khuvsgul Lake
  • 08:00 Breakfast
  • 10:00 “Taiga Melody” cultural concert
  • 11:30 journey on motor boat in the Lake
  • 13:00 Memory photos
  • 13:30 Lunch
  • 15:00 Horse racing
  • 16:00 Closing ceremony of the festival
  • 19:00 Dinner

4th Day:

  • Drive to Murun town from “Dalai tour” tourist camp and lunch at Edelweiss Hotel
  • Back to UB

13th International Ulaanbaatar Marathon | June 2021

This event opens Mongolia to all, those who run internationally, who are looking for new running discoveries and who would like to experience Mongolia - a rare country with kept untouched ancient nomadic culture, seemingly blue sky and endless grassland steppe. 

This marathon will be not only running, but one of colorful and festive events of the running world accompanied by cultural performances associated with the history of Great Genghis khan's Mongolia, Mini-Naadam festival, Mongolian Noodle party-special event for runners and many more. 

The marathon will be organized on professional level prepared and operated by Mongolian and international experts. The course is measured in accordance with IAAF guidelines. 

Deeltei Mongol Festival (July 10th or on July 13th)

Deel Mongol Festival (on July 10th or on July 13th): A Deel is an item of traditional clothing commonly worn since centuries ago among the Mongols and other nomadic tribes of Central Asia, including various Turkic peoples, and can be made from cotton, silk, wool, or brocade. The deel is still commonly worn by both men and women outside major towns, especially by herders. In urban areas, deels are mostly only worn by elderly people, or on festive occasions. The Deel Mongol Festival is held in the Genghis or Chinggis Khaan square (*the main square in the heart of Ulaanbaatar) onJuly 10th or on July 13th, and is comprised the folk art concert, parade-show in the Deel of Mongolian national clothes and Mongolian Ger. A traditional Ger is a portable, round tent covered with skins or felt used as a dwelling by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. The structure comprises an angled assembly or latticework of pieces of wood or bamboo for walls, a door frame, ribs (poles), and a wheel (crown, compression ring) possibly steam bent. The roof structure is often self-supporting but large yurts may have interior posts supporting the crown.


Naadam Festival (on July 11th - July 13th): Naadam is a traditional type of Festival in Mongolia. The festival is also locally termed "the three games of men". The games are Mongolian wrestling, horse racing and archery and are held throughout the country during the midsummer holidays. Women have started participating in the archery and girls in the horse-racing games, but not in Mongolian wrestling. The biggest festival is held in the Mongolian capital Ulaanbaatar during the National Holiday from July 11th - July 13th in the National Sports Stadium. Other cities and towns across Mongolia, have their own, smaller scale Naadam celebrations. It begins with an elaborate introduction ceremony featuring dancers, athletes, horse riders, and musicians. After the ceremony, the competitions begin. Another popular Naadam activity is the playing of games using shagai, sheep knuckles that serve as game pieces and tokens of both divination and friendship. return to top


Naadam is Mongolia’s longest and most significant public holiday. It celebrates Mongolian independence, freedom and pride in Mongol history and culture. Held during the summer in the capital city, the atmosphere is very festive as Mongols enjoy their holiday season.
Every year, the official Naadam Opening Ceremony is held on 11th July. The ceremony takes the form of a drama spectacular, similar to that of the Olympics. Designed and choreographed differently each year, the spirit of the opening event is a strong message of Mongol freedom, spirit and pride.

A unique part of the ceremony is a parade of ancient Mongol white spirit banners. These spirit banners are made of horse hair and date back to the thirteenth century. Kept in the Mongolian Parliament House at all other times, it is only during the Naadam Opening Ceremony that they are paraded out in public.
Horse Racing

Mongolian horse racing is vastly different from other horse race cultures, with its own unique history and culture. Betting on races is not part of Mongol horse race culture. In the national races, each race event is entered by four to six hundred horses. In total, some three thousand male horses compete in six types of race events at the national race in Ulan Bator. Unlike Western horse traditions, Mongol horses are raced from age one year. The youngest horses compete in a 10km event. Races take place on relatively straight courses rather than a circular racetrack. Adult horses and stallions compete in races that are 28–30 kilometres in distance. Race jockeys are all children aged five to fourteen years, both girls and boys.

During the Naadam season, across  all of Mongolia’s three main cities, 21 provinces and 360 villages, the three manly sports are celebrated through competition (local Naadam). In horse racing events, this involves some fifty thousand horses across the entire country! The biggest national horse race in Ulan Bator is on 10–12 July. There are two races on each of these three days. The race finish line is located about 30 kilometres from Ulan Bator city.

One of the critical reasons behind the success of the Mongol army during the thirteenth century was the keen skill and technology of Mongol archers. Mongol bows were able to shoot twice as far in distance compared with any others. These remarkable bows were made using a special technique of combining animal horns and wood. Even today, Mongols continue to use this same technology for competing in the Naadam Festival. During the country’s communist history, women archers began competing in the national competition. Indeed, Mongolia’s first world champion was a female archer in 1971.

Naadam archery event categories are divided by gender, age and styles.  While the official Naadam Festival runs over just two days, national archery events continue over ten. For visitors, the archery events offer wonderful opportunities to admire skills and take photos from different angles, including at close proximity to the athletes.


The earliest evidence of traditional Mongol wrestling dates back to the Bronze Age. Very recently, in September 2011, the Mongolian Wrestling Association organised a tournament of 6006 wrestlers, setting the world record for the most number of wrestlers any competition.

A ‘men only’ sport, Mongolian wrestling is unique from other wrestling traditions around the world. Most significantly, there are no weight or time limits. The longest match occurred during the 1998 Naadam final, taking 4 hours and 15 minutes! The absence of any weight categories reflects the sports core philosophy that a wrestler must be able to fight against any opponent of any size. It is the combination of speed, technique, strength and other skills that makes a champion wrestler.

Mongol wrestling costumes are very distinctive, comprising long, large boots worn together with small, tight pants and an open-chested top. The design of the open-chest upper garment can be traced back a few centuries when a female Mongol entered the competition disguised as a man by wearing a closed-chest top. This amazing woman went on to win the tournament. After her true identity became known, open-chest tops became mandatory.

There are a few basic rules to the sport. A wrestler is defeated if any part of his body, except for his hands, touches the ground. If a wrestler loses a match, he is out of the tournament.

The Naadam wrestling tournament is the biggest of the year, involving either 512 or 1024 wrestlers. The first round of 512 wrestlers and the second round of 256 wrestlers are held on 11 July. There are 256 matches in the first round, taking about 3 hours. As many as 16 pairs of wrestlers compete at the same time in a stadium the size of a soccer field. On 12 July, spectator numbers swell because the remaining wrestlers compete for special rankings.

Wrestling ranks

Just once a year during the  Naadam Festival, wrestlers have the opportunity to increase their ranking. Once obtained, a wrestler keeps their rank for their whole life. Professional wrestling ranks are mostly named after animals:

1.       Champion

2.       Lion

3.       Elephant

4.       Eagle

The Eagle rank is gained through winning five rounds, Elephant by winning 7 rounds, Lion by winning the entire Naadam tournament and Champion by winning more than one Naadam tournament.

Click here to find our Special Naadam Festival Tours.


Organizer: The Governor’s Office of Bayankhongor aimag, Citizens’ representatives khural of Erdenetsogt soum, Gandan Monastery of Bayankhongor aimag, Police department of protection livestock from criminal attack

Date: 27th of July 2021

Venue: Bayankhongor Erdenetsogt

The Yak festival is the local traditional celebration which is organized since 2005.

Aim of the event: Protection of yaks, increase their numbers and promote yak benefits, products from yak. Ticket sales of the event will be donated to the “Khaluun bolor” or “hot crystal” center fund for the further activities and sanatorium construction work for the paralyzed children. 

Activities and competitions:

  • Wrestling
  • Twin calves celebration
  • Contest of the Best Selected yak bull
  • Contest of Dembee game and competition of yak airag
  • Yak race

Highlights: local herders participate with their marked herds for the "Yak Naadagai-2016" Festival and during the celebration will be consecrated the Yak god and special ritual, worship to the deity of the livestock, Banzragch, to make the deity become the local deity for herders. 


Date: 4th of August, Every year

Since 2005, the festival has been organized on every August 4th. It has become one of the most favorite festivals among local children.  The festival is aim to inherit the culture and art of Western Mongolia as well as introducing and promoting it for domestic and foreign tourists. The festival includes performances of melodies performed on traditional instrument horse headed fiddle (bayad, durvud, hoton etc., ), throat songs, biyelgee. 

Programs :

  • Opening ceremony
  • Western Mongolian folk concert
  • Awarding ceremony of best talent
  • Opening ceremony of Children’ Mini Naadam
  • Children’ wrestling
  • 2-year-old horses or foals racing
  • Betted adult wrestling
  • Betted Stallion racing
  • Betted 6-year-old horse racing
  • Prizing activity for horse racing
  • Prizing activity for wrestlers
  • Closing ceremony


  • During the festival, you’ll experience the Western Mongolian Nomad culture, tradition, lifestyle and watching how dairy products such as curds, cheese, vodka are produced visiting especially prepared gers
  • We’ll serve you by vehicles from Ulaangom, Bayan-Ulgii or khovd provinces.
  • Distances: 100km from Ulaangom, the central town of Uvs province 450 km from Khovd town, 240 km from Ulgii town
  • Before or after Naadam we organize one or two-day tours
  • Not allowed to sell or use alcohol

HORSE - FESTIVAL (UVURKHANGAI) Date: 18th August of Every year

Organizer: The Governor's Office of Uvurkhangai aimag, The aimag's Department of Environment, Green Development and Tourism, The all soum Governor's Offices of the aimag, "Aravgar-Kheer" Federation of horse racing sport and trainers

Date: 18th August of Every year

Venue: At the complex "Mongol tumeny ikh shuteen", Arvaikheer, Uvurkhangai aimag


  • Stake race of foal horses
  • Ambler horses demonstration
  • Lassoing a horse
  • Grabbing a lasso pole from land on top a running horse
  • Horse bucking
  • "Guutei ailiin guzeetei huu" Airag (fermented milk of mares) drinking competition
  • "Do you know Dembee" airag drinking game
  • "Aravdakh" Ten fingers game
  • Lassoing a horse from top of a running horse
  • Traditional ankle bones horse racing game (participating tourists)
  •  Gathering up the ankle bones game (participating tourists)
  • Mongolian handwork exhibition (bridle, rein, saddle and lasso pole etc)
  • Auction of foal horses with fast ancestry 


Date: 5th of August, Every year

Venue: Tsaidam, Khashaat soum, Arkhangai province

Ticket price: 30 $ per tourist excluding meals (need to ask for detail information, price changes every year)

Mongolians have been paying attention on their children’s manner since long time ago. The method to bring up the children is mostly connects with culture, tradition, everyday lifestyle, saving earth or animals. It is hard to imagine Mongolian nomad life or ancient history without horse. In order to train the horses for riding they are started from the age of 2-year-old. In a proverb of Mongolia, "Hun boloh bagaasaa, huleg boloh unaganaasaa" which means "The fine pullet shows its excellence from the egg". Therefore, similar to this proverb, developing the children depending on their interests, “99 Heroes Trip” 2-year old or foal horse racing has been organized for the 3rd year. 


  • Advertising the children labor
  • Raising numbers of tourists to Mongolia
  • Producing a new tour product in Mongolian Tourism

Programs :

  • Experience the lifestyle of children, everyday activities and Naadam Festival of Children
  • Foal horses racing of 99 little warriors
  • Wrestling of children
  • Archery of children
  • Listen to the GiinGoo (song for horses) of children
  • Performance of Children with traditional costumes
  • Cultural performance- “ Bloom Of the Flower” ensemble’s concert
  • Adult wrestling of 32 wrestlers
  • Local Archery competition  
  • Awarding: 120 participant children & adult wrestlers (with a purpose of encouraging them for their labor)


  • Stationaries for 99 little warriors
  • The best GiinGoo singer
  • The best warrior costume
  • First 5 riders of the colt race
  • Bayan hodood meaning full stomach prize (this year’s last horse-next year’s first one)
  • Champion of Archery
  • Awards for 4 finalists of children wrestling
  • Awards for 4 finalists of adult wrestling
  • 99 khadag (silk band) for 99 foal horses


Date: Sunday, 3rd week of September, every year

Venue: From Moltsog Els to Bayanzag, Bulgan soum, Umnugobi aimag (South Gobi province)


  • Flight from Ulaanbaatar to Umnugobi aimag. Trip to Moltsog Sand dune, Bayanzag (Flaming Cliffs)
  • Explore the lifestyle of Mongolian Nomads
  • Marathon.  Award ceremony for the winners, closing ceremony, gala dinner 
  • Flight back to Ulaanbaatar from Dalanzadgad

Marathon distance: 10km, 21km, 42km

The Altai Kazakh Eagle Festival-2021

The Altai Kazakh Eagle Festival is held in the last week of September in the nearby village of Sagsai . It follows much the same pattern as the Larger Golden Eagle Festival, with about 40 eagle hunters participating. The Larger Eagle Festival is held on October. This is an annual festival held in Bayan-Olgii extreme province of Mongolia on October. Anyhow the tourism infrastructure has somewhat developed. Be prepared for cold temperatures on October. In eagle festival, eagle hunters will make a show catching small animals such as fox and hares by their trained eagles. The eagles are released from a rock cliff, while their owners stand below and signal for them to land upon their arms, as they do during hunting. Those with the fastest times and best technique are awarded the highest scores. In addition to the eagle hunting contests, the participants play such traditional Kazakh games known as kekbar

WINTER FESTIVAL: Mongolia New Year-Tsagaan sar-2021

Mongolia and a number of other Eastern and Central Asian countries have followed the lunar calendar with its 12 year animal cycle since ancient times. The New Year according to the Oriental calendar in Mongolia is called Tsagaan sar which translate white month. There are many options about the origin of this name. One is that Mongols believe white symbolizes happiness, purity and abundance of milk products. The date of Tsagaan sar, depending on the phases of the moon, falls anywhere between the end of January and early March. Tsagaan sar is a birthday for all Mongols. Mongol families start preparations for a holiday almost a month a head. First of all there is a tradition to prepare plenty of gifts and food, in other words to have one's hand's full. Also gers, sheds and pens should be cleaned out. Every Mongol family makes hundred of buuzs and bunshes. Mongols like to greet the New Year in everything new. So women sew new dels for the whole family. According to custom Mongols kill a sheep, the fattest in the flock. Then the lower back with the tail is boiled and served on the table for the entire holiday. Tsagaan sar symbolizes wealth and prosperity in the family. The New Year eve in Mongolia is called Bituun - the last dinner of the old year. Beginning at noon family begins to set up the table. There must be several dishes; a dish with the boiled sheep's back tail a dish with ul boov (traditional bread biscuit), a dish with the berees (rice cooked with butter , sugar and raisins) and dish with traditional milk products; aaruul. Byaslag (unsalted cheese), cream, etc. one must eat all the traditional dishes that evening; boiled lamb and beef, huge variety of milk products, buzes and dessert. Some families have the tradition of placing coins inside the banshes. Whoever bites into the bansh with them coins will have good luck. At the end of the evening everyone's stomach is fully satisfied. The following morning everyone rises bright and early according to tradition (about 6-7 o clock). On this morning there are many customs to follow. The first is to greet the sun; everyone watches the sun rise. Second in order to have good health and happiness in the New Year, each individual must take "their first steps of the year". Everyone takes some steps in a specific direction. The direction is dependent upon what lunar calendar year one was born in. for ex, a person who was born in the mouse year must take the first steps to the north at the first day of the monkey year. The following year the direction will be different. After the fist steps are take, all family members re-enter their home. At this point the traditional Tsagaan sar greetings begin. The oldest family member is greeted first. They are seated at the north side of the ger -the most respected side of the ger. The next oldest family member is the first to greet. This member carries the hadag- a beautiful piece of blue silk - across their arms. A cup filled with milk is placed in the right hand on the silk. This person greets the oldest family member by saying"Sar shinedee saihan shinelj bna uu?" and then gives the silk and milk to them. The younger member has her or his palms facing upward and grasps the older one's elbows. The older member has palms faced down, and the arms are above the younger. While this occurring, the two kiss one other on each cheek. (This kiss, not exactly kiss, is the touching of one's cheeks) On this day 'all family members show their respect and love through this greeting. After the second oldest member has finished the greeting, the one family member greets the oldest member. Then they continue to greet one another and give gifts. After the greetings, the food is placed on the table and the eating and drinking begins once again. The drinks consist of airag and vodka. The almost favorable drink during this holiday is Mongol milk tea. The woman who is head of the house continually cooks, and serves, cleans all day. Her children help her with all of the work.

At this point, guests begin to arrive and continue to all day long. The greetings continue as well as the gift- giving. The conversation greetings with the guests are a little different. Usually, question is asked about livestock's how they survived through the winter, if they are healthy, etc.

During this period it is expect that all family members visit one another. The greetings should be finished within 15 days then Tsagaan Sar has ended.


Date: 17th -18th of September Every year

Venue: “Gun Galuut ” Natural Reserve, Bayandelger soum, Tuv province

Ticket price: 35 $ per tourist a day, 70$ for 2 days (need to make clear)


1st Day:

  • Opening ceremony of the festival
  • Competitions among the nomadic herders
  • “City guys” fun competition among tourists (contest of best team assembling Ger)
  • “Steppe Melodies” folk music competition among the local nomadic groups

2nd Day:

  • “Mongolian Smile” contest of the best Mongolian National Dressed couple
  • “Shuvuun Saaral” Mini naadam 
  • Awarding ceremony
  • Closing Gala Dinner
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